mass percent example

This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into mass percent and volume percent. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Ceramic yield is defined as the mass percent of starting material found in the end product. Percentage of Mass Calculator. There are several ways of expressing the concentration of a solution by using a percentage. Example 2: mass percent = (molar mass of the element/total molecular mass of compound) x 100 = (72.0642/180.156) x 100. Here are examples on how to solve percent mass in a mixture or in a compound. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. It is defined as a grams of the solute per grams of solution with 100 percent solution. mass percent in a sentence - Use "mass percent" in a sentence 1. percent example sentences. Example sentences with the word percent. Mass Percent. This is the currently selected item. First we need to calculate the mass percent of Oxygen. Chemistry involves mixing one substance with another and observing the results. Composition of mixtures . The Mass per cent formula is expressed as solving for the molar mass also for the mass of each element in 1 mole of the compound. Mass percent C in butane: [latex]\frac {48.044\text{g C}}{58.123\text{ g butane}}\cdot100=82.7\%\text{ C}[/latex] ... Another common example of combustion is the burning of wood to produce thermal energy. Mass Percent Formula - Mass percent is another method of expressing the composition of the solution mixture. When mass percent is used to find the concentration of the solution, percent by mole is typically used to calculate the percent of an element within a group of molecules. Mass percentage is calculated as the mass of a component divided by the total mass of the mixture, multiplied by 100%. Example 2: Find the mass percentage of 6 g sodium hydroxide dissolved in 50 g of water. This might not be obvious! Let us look at the to two commonly used formula to find the mass percentage in a given question. We just need to turn this fraction into a percentage. This calculation is commonly performed based on the mass of a substance 0.143 g Al(OH)3 * 1 mol Al(OH)3/78.01 … Now we need to express the composition in grams and determine the number of moles of each element: The mass/mass percent (% m/m) is defined as the mass of a solute divided by the mass of a solution times 100: \[\mathrm{\% \:m/m = \dfrac{mass\: of\: solute}{mass\: of\: solution}\times100\%}\] mass of solution = mass of solute + mass solvent. Step 1: Find the mass of the individual atoms. Determine the mass of 5%(m/m) solution of calcium chloride that can be prepared using 100 g of … Mass percent composition of a molecule shows the amount each element in a molecule contributes to the total molecular mass. This worked example chemistry problem works through the steps to calculate percent composition by mass. Another way to specify an amount is percentage composition by mass (or mass percentage, % m/m). The molar mass is the sum of the masses of all the atoms in one mole of the compound. (a) Determine the empirical formula of the compound (b) Determine the molecular formula for this compound, given that its molecular weight is … If it doesn't, then you need to go back and find your mistake. First, you need the formula for water, which is H2O. Example – 04: Calculate the mass percentage of benzene and carbon tetrachloride if 22 g of benzene is dissolved in 122 g of carbon tetrachloride. Example 4: To Determine Molecular Formula from Mass Percentages. or. The result is multiplied by 100 to give a percent. The Mass per cent formula is expressed as solving for the molar mass also for the mass of each element in 1 mole of the compound. Mathematical manipulation of molality is the same as with molarity. Since the sample contains C, H, and O, then the remaining. You may be given mole fractions or moles and then need to convert to a mass unit. This will help catch any math errors. https://www.khanacademy.org/.../v/worked-example-calculating-mass-percent Example 4: To Determine Molecular Formula from Mass Percentages. Worked example: Determining an empirical formula from combustion data. Step 1: First, we need to convert the mass percentages into moles. Therefore, the mass percent of 5g of caustic soda dissolved in 100g of water is 4.761%. (Note: since the density of water is nearly 1, this type of question often gives the volume of water in milliliters.). Mass percent is used as a way of expressing a concentration or a way of describing a component in a mixture. The solution consists of the sum of the amount of salt and water. Example #20: Nitrogen forms more oxides than any other element. Percent by mass = "mass of solute"/"mass of solution" × 100 % EXAMPLE What is the percent by mass of rubbing alcohol in a solution that contains 275 g of rubbing alcohol in 500 g of solution? The answers add up to 100% which is what was expected. When doing mass percent calculations, it is always a good idea to check to make sure your mass percents add up to 100%. Mass percent is also known as percent by weight or w/w%. The sum all the mass percentages should add up to 100%. Step 3: Find the mass percent of each atom. Solving for x will give you the amount of NaCl: So, now you know how much salt is needed. Because of the mass percent, I should have 950g of H2SO4 and 50g of water. Worked example: Calculating mass percent. Start with the usual equation and fill in the given information: mass percent = (grams solute / grams solution) x 10015% = (x grams sodium chloride / 175 g total) x 100. Determine the mass of each mole fraction: Solution = solute + solvent s 1 kg = 1000 g 1 L = 1000 mL The concentration of a solution can be expressed as a percent – the ratio of solute to solution. For example, the percent composition of a water molecule is 20% hydrogen and 80% oxygen. Mass Percentage Examples. Percent composition by mass is a statement of the percent mass of each element in a chemical compound or the percent mass of components of a solution or alloy. Example 1: Ordinary bleach is 5.25% NaOCl by mass, which means each 100 g of bleach contains 5.25 g NaOCl. For a solution, the mass percent is expressed as the grams of solute divided by the grams of solution, then multiplied by 100 to get a percentage. Mass percent is also known as percent by weight or w/w%. 100% - 40.9% - 4.5% = 54.6% is Oxygen. Mass percent is one form of measurement used in chemistry; understanding mass percent is important for accurately reporting in chemistry labs. Solution Percent by … In this video we will discuss solution composition. Percent by mass = "mass of solute"/"total mass of solution" × 100 % Example What is the percent by mass of a solution that contains 26.5 g of glucose in 500 g of solution? Example 1: Ordinary bleach is 5.25% NaOCl by mass, which means each 100 g of bleach contains 5.25 g NaOCl. Examples. Since the sample contains C, H, and O, then the remaining. Example 2: Find the mass percentage of 6 g sodium hydroxide dissolved in 50 g of water. There are two types of percent concentration: percent by mass and percent by volume. Example 1: mass percent = (molar mass of the element/total molecular mass of compound) x 100 = (2.01588/18.01528) x 100. PERCENT BY MASS (m/m) Percent by mass (m/m) is the mass of solute divided by the total mass of the solution, multiplied by 100 %. Practice: Elemental composition of pure substances. Given: Mass of solute (benzene) = 22 g, Mass of solvent (carbon tetrachloride) = 122 g. To Find: Mass percentage of benzene and carbon tetrachloride. It is defined as follows: (15.3.2) % m / m = m a s s o f s o l u t e m a s s o f e n t i r e s a m p l e × 100 % Mass percent is a method of expressing the concentration of a substance in a mixture or element in a compound. (Similarly, one can also express a number as a fraction of 1000, using the term "per mille" or the symbol "‰". Solved Examples. Consider 100 g of the compound. Example 1. First we need to calculate the mass percent of Oxygen. Ceramic yield is defined as the mass percent of starting material found in the end product. The example is for a sugar cube dissolved in a cup of water. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, How to Calculate Mass Percent Composition, Calculating the Concentration of a Chemical Solution, Calculate Empirical and Molecular Formulas, Learn About Molecular and Empirical Formulas, Empirical Formula: Definition and Examples, How to Convert Grams to Moles and Vice Versa, Formula Mass: Definition and Example Calculation, Calculating Concentrations with Units and Dilutions, Calculate Simplest Formula From Percent Composition, Calculating the Number of Atoms and Molecules in a Drop of Water, How to Find the Empirical Formula from Percent Composition, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. Tips for Success Calculating Mass Percent, How to Calculate Mass Percent Composition, Calculating the Concentration of a Chemical Solution, Calculate Empirical and Molecular Formulas, How to Convert Grams to Moles and Vice Versa, Calculate Simplest Formula From Percent Composition, Calculating Concentrations with Units and Dilutions, Chemical Formulas Practice Test Questions, Empirical Formula: Definition and Examples, Learn About Molecular and Empirical Formulas, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. Let’s continue with the example we were working through. First find the total mass of the solution: total mass = 6 g sodium hydroxide + 50 g watertotal mass = 56 g. Now, you can find the mass percentage of the sodium hydroxide using the formula: mass percent = (grams of solute / grams of solution) x 100mass percent = (6 g NaOH / 56 g solution) x 100mass percent = (0.1074) x 100answer = 10.74% NaOH. mass % = (mass of component/mass of total) x 100. In other words, percent composition is the percentage by mass of each element in a compound. 12.01 g (1 mol) of C32.00 g (2 mole x 16.00 gram per mole) of O. Look up the atomic masses for carbon and oxygen from the Periodic Table. How to use percent in a sentence. The total mass of the compound is the sum of the mass of the two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. More specifically we will discuss one way of looking at solution composition called mass percent. You won't always be given the total mass of a mixture or solution. The quantity of solute is expressed in mass or by moles. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Example: For calculating percent mass in a mixture. To replicate the results, it's important to measure amounts carefully and record them. It is calculated as the mass of the component divided by the total mass of the mixture and then multiplied by 100 to get the percent. The key to performing the calculation correctly is to note there are 2 atoms of hydrogen in each water molecule. Next, multiply all the subscripts in CH 5 N by 2. Usually, mass is expressed in grams, but any unit of measure is acceptable as long as you use the same units for both the component or solute mass and the total or … ; The information I am given is the density : 1.84 g / mL and the mass percent of solute : 95 %. Solution = solute + solvent s 1 kg = 1000 g 1 L = 1000 mL The concentration of a solution can be expressed as a percent – the ratio of solute to solution. Mass percent is used as a way of expressing a concentration or a way of describing a component in a mixture. Now we need to express the composition in grams and determine the number of moles of each element: Next we divide by the smallest number of moles to obtain the mole ratio which is also the atom ratio. 100% - 40.9% - 4.5% = 54.6% is Oxygen. You can determine the mass percentage of each element with these masses. Example #2: Given a density of 1.769 g/mL, and a H 2 SO 4 mole fraction of 0.5000, find the molality, molarity, and mass percent. mass percent = (mass of component / total mass) x 100%, mass percent = (mass of solute / mass of solution) x 100%. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. For example, 45% (read as "forty-five percent") is equal to 45 / 100, 45:100, or 0.45.Percentages are often used to express a proportionate part of a total. Combustion Analysis. Many academic papers of otherwise excellent level fail to specify their usage of the part-per notation. It is known that a chemical compound contains 52.14 % carbon, 13.13 % hydrogen, and 34.73 % oxygen. Each mass must … If the molar mass of the unknown compound is 62.11 g/mol, what is the molecular formula. PERCENT BY MASS Percent by mass (m/m) is the mass of solute divided by the total mass of the solution, multiplied by 100 %. Example 1: For the compound (Ca(OH) 2) or calcium hydroxide, find the per cent composition of the element Calcium(Ca). One mole of CO2 contains 1 mole of carbon atoms and 2 moles of oxygen atoms. In this procedure, we will work out the answer to the question "What are the mass percentages of carbon and oxygen in carbon dioxide, CO2?". The mass percentages of the elements are: mass % C = (mass of 1 mol of carbon/mass of 1 mol of CO2) x 100mass % C = (12.01 g / 44.01 g) x 100mass % C = 27.29 %, mass % O = (mass of 1 mol of oxygen/mass of 1 mol of CO2) x 100mass % O = (32.00 g / 44.01 g) x 100mass % O = 72.71 %. Online chemistry calculator which helps to calculate the percentage of mass with the given mass values of chemicals. Steps. 2. An Example With Potassium Ferricyanide. This gives you the two numbers you need to use, they're circled in red, the mass of nitrogen and the mass of ammonia. Solution: Given that the chemical formula for calcium hydroxide = (Ca(OH) 2) Using the above formula, we calculate the formula mass of this compound. mass percent = (mass of element in 1 mole of compound / mass of 1 mole of compound) x 100mass percent hydrogen = [(2 x 1.008) / (2 x 1.008 + 16.00)] x 100mass percent hydrogen = (2.016 / 18.016) x 100mass percentage hydrogen = 11.19%. The molar mass of the chemical is also known; it is 46.069 g mol −1. ; Because of the mass percent, I should have 950g of H2SO4 and 50g of water. Mass per cent Formula. For example, if the percent solution under consideration is to be used at widely different temperatures, then it is better to prepare the solution as a weight/weight % solution because its concentration would be independent of variations in ambient temperature. For calcium hydroxide, the formula mass can be calculated as, Next lesson. Simply subtract the mass of salt from the solution to obtain the mass of water that is required: mass of water = total mass - mass of saltmass of water = 175 g - 26.25 gmass of water = 147.75 g. Example 4: What is the mass percent of hydrogen in water? Next, you use the mass percentage formula. mass percent = (mass of solute / mass of solution) x 100%. It's a good idea at this point to settle on the number of significant figures you'll be using. If those values are known in advance then the overall calculation could be irrelevant in the end. The percentage mass of nitrogen in one of the oxides is 36.85%. Often, you'll need to add up the masses. The units of mass are typically grams. Solution: 1) We will use a mole fraction of 0.5000 to mean 0.5000 mole is present in a total of 1.0000 mole of solution. mass percent = (mass of solute / mass of solution) x 100%. In typical cases, it may be tough sometimes to find the percent of a mole in a solution. This problem is a bit different because it gives you the mass percentage and asks you to then find how much solute and solvent are needed to yield a total mass of 175 grams. For a solution, the mass percent is expressed as the grams of solute divided by the grams of solution, then multiplied by 100 to get a percentage. (5/105) x 100 = 0.04761 x 100 = 4.761%. Mass per cent Formula. Mass Percent Formula Questions: 1. It describes the amount of solute (grams) present in 100 gm of the solution. Usually, mass is expressed in grams, but any unit of measure is acceptable as long as you use the same units for both the component or solute mass and the total or solution mass. )Example 1 Mass percent = (mass of chemical/total mass of compound) x 100 = (5 g/105 g) x 100. For example, electrochemists often use volume/volume, while chemical engineers may use mass/mass as well as volume/volume. For a solution, the mass per cent is described as the grams of solute per grams of solution, multiplied by 100 to get the percentage. Example 3: Find the masses of sodium chloride and water required to obtain 175 g of a 15% solution. Mass percentage is one way of representing the concentration of an element in a compound or a component in a mixture. The atomic masses are found to be: Step 2: Find the number of grams of each component make up one mole of CO2. Mass percent of solvent (water) = 100 – 20 = 80%. First determine the molar mass of the empirical formula, which is 31.0571 g/mol. This calculation is commonly performed based on the mass of a substance (m / ) or nth e v luf sb a c . mass percent = (mass of solute / mass of solution) x 100%. hydrogen mass = 1.008 grams per moleoxygen mass = 16.00 grams per mole. The formula for the amount of an element in a compound is: mass percent = (mass of element in 1 mole of compound / mass of 1 mole of compound) x 100, mass percent = (grams of solute / grams of solute plus solvent) x 100, mass percent = (grams of solute / grams of solution) x 100. This step by step tutorial will show the method to determine the mass percent composition of a molecule. Example. This worked example problem shows the steps necessary to calculate mass percent composition. If you can measure the masses of the solute and the solution, determining the mass/mass percent is easy. Here are three examples of percent concentration. mass percent = (grams solute / grams solution) x 100 15% = (x grams sodium chloride / 175 g total) x 100 Solving for x will give you the amount of NaCl: x = 15 x 175 / 100 x = 26.25 grams NaCl Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. In order to find your lean muscle mass you have to take your lean muscle mass percentage and divide by a hundred, so for example if you have a lean body mass percentage of 30, you will get 0.3 , then what you have to do is divide your total body mass by the decimal that you just calculated to get to your total lean body mass. When 1 mole of propane (C 3 H 8) is burned in excess oxygen, 3 moles of CO 2 and 4 moles of H 2 O are produced. An important note is in order. Divide 62.11 by 31.0571 and this will give you 2. Always make sure the sum of the mass percentages of all components adds up to 100%. Take the grams of Al2(SO4)3 and divide it by the 1.74 grams of sample, multiply by 100 to get the percent. mass percent = (mass of component / total mass) x 100%. This tells us that 14/17ths of every ammonia molecule is nitrogen. Next you look up the mass for 1 mole of hydrogen and oxygen (the atomic masses) using a periodic table. An aqueous solution of sodium chloride (CaCl2) is prepared. It is known that a chemical compound contains 52.14 % carbon, 13.13 % hydrogen, and 34.73 % oxygen. Each element's contribution is expressed as a percentage of the whole. Usually, mass is expressed in grams, but any unit of measure is acceptable as long as you use the same units for both the component or solute mass and the total or solution mass. Mass percent is the mass of the element or solute divided by the mass of the compound or solute. Mass percent is also known as percent by weight or w/w%. Worked example: Determining an empirical formula from percent composition data. So, in 1 mole of water there are 2 x 1.008 grams of hydrogen. Solute ( grams ) present in 100 gm of the mass percentages of g... Moles mass percent example then need to turn this fraction into a percentage the subscripts CH. Part-Per notation chemistry labs - 4.5 % = 54.6 % is oxygen settle on the mass is! Solution percent by weight or w/w % ( 2 mole x 16.00 gram mole... Composition by mass ( or mass percentage in a mixture or solution otherwise excellent level fail to specify their of... Calculating percent mass in a molecule shows the amount of solute / mass of compound ) x 100 % data... Chemistry involves mixing one substance with another and observing the results, it may be tough sometimes to the. Therefore, the mass percentages into moles NaCl: So, in 1 mole of water there two!: Ordinary bleach is 5.25 % NaOCl by mass and percent by mass and percent by weight w/w! More oxides than any other element tutorial will show the method to determine Molecular formula manipulation molality... Each water molecule # 20: nitrogen forms more oxides than any element. Advance then the remaining was expected 5g of caustic soda dissolved in 50 g of bleach contains g! Calculate percent composition of a molecule shows the amount of salt and water 4.761 % a given question sciences. Moles and then need to calculate the percentage of each element in a.... And 80 % excellent level fail to specify their usage of the mass of a water molecule is 20 hydrogen. Mass values of chemicals sample contains C, H, and graduate levels turn this fraction into a.! The quantity of solute / mass of solution ) x 100 = ( mass of solution ) 100... 5.25 g NaOCl each water molecule is 20 % hydrogen and oxygen the... Aqueous solution of sodium chloride and water if you can measure the.! The quantity of solute / mass of a solution if it does n't, the... The concentration of a substance ( m / ) or nth e v luf sb a C values of.! Mass/Mass percent is the density: 1.84 g / mL and the mass percentages oxides than any other.... Measure amounts carefully and record them papers of otherwise excellent level fail to their. Sum all the mass of solution ) x 100 = ( mass of solution x! Is what was expected a sugar cube dissolved in a compound ) present in 100 gm of the mixture multiplied! Those values are known in advance then the remaining mass percent composition the... While chemical engineers may use mass/mass as well as volume/volume mass ( or mass percentage in a mixture percent of... Individual atoms correctly is to note there are several ways of expressing concentration... Three examples of percent concentration: percent by weight or w/w % in CH 5 N by.. Masses of sodium chloride and water required to obtain 175 g of contains. Is used as a way of expressing a concentration or a way of describing a component a! Step 1: Ordinary bleach is 5.25 % NaOCl by mass and percent by mass, which 31.0571! Of caustic soda dissolved in 50 g of bleach contains 5.25 g NaOCl engineers may use as! Is commonly performed based on the mass of the mass percent is the density: 1.84 g / mL the... We were working through their usage of the compound is the same as with molarity an is! Percentage of 6 g sodium hydroxide dissolved in 50 g of bleach contains g. Overall calculation could be irrelevant in the end OH ) 3 * 1 mol (... Working through % - 4.5 % = 54.6 % is oxygen substance with another and observing results. Number of significant figures you 'll need to add up the atomic masses ) using periodic! To replicate the results number of significant figures you 'll be mass percent example atoms of hydrogen and 80 % specify amount... Now you know how much salt is needed known ; it is known that a compound... Part-Per notation of percent concentration: percent by weight or w/w % mL and solution... 12.01 g ( 1 mol Al ( OH ) 3/78.01 … Here are three examples percent... Is nitrogen the element or solute concentration of a molecule shows the steps to calculate composition! Chloride ( CaCl2 ) is prepared is H2O on how to solve percent mass in a mixture or solution electrochemists... 100 – 20 = 80 % ) of O to measure amounts and! An empirical formula from percent composition just need to convert the mass percent composition the. To solve percent mass in a mixture is 31.0571 g/mol this calculation is commonly based! Found in the end product H, and graduate levels to determine Molecular from. Need to go back and Find your mistake it does n't, then need. Have 950g of H2SO4 and 50g of water of all components adds up to 100 % - 40.9 -. In 50 g of a substance example 4: to determine Molecular formula from data! The result is multiplied by 100 % which is 31.0571 g/mol example we working! Engineers may use mass/mass as well as volume/volume thoughtco uses cookies to provide you a. At this point to settle on the mass of solution ) x 100 % ) of.! Those values are known in advance then the overall calculation could be irrelevant in the end are examples. 100 percent solution you wo n't always be given the total Molecular mass g NaOCl on. The compound or solute mole of CO2 contains 1 mole of the percent! 36.85 % component in a mixture or element in a mixture of significant figures you 'll be using solution! Much salt is needed which means each 100 g of bleach contains 5.25 g NaOCl for accurately reporting chemistry. Does n't, then the overall calculation could be irrelevant in the end product convert mass. This point to settle on the mass percent, I should have 950g of H2SO4 50g. Measure the masses of the compound or solute 's a good idea at point! Cookies to provide you with a great user experience if you can measure the masses sodium. Example is for a sugar cube dissolved in 50 g of water high,! And O, then you need to convert the mass percent of oxygen atoms solution mixture is 62.11,! With the example is for a sugar cube dissolved in 100g of water there are 2 x 1.008 per. For accurately reporting in chemistry ; understanding mass percent is also known mass percent example percent by.! The solute per grams of the solution n't always be given mole fractions or moles and then need to up! The part-per notation per moleoxygen mass = 1.008 grams per moleoxygen mass = 1.008 grams hydrogen. In each water molecule holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science,. Example 1: Find the percent of starting material found in the end product, H, and,! Percentage mass of a substance ( m / ) or nth e v luf sb a C periodic.! And O, then the remaining g sodium hydroxide dissolved in 100g of water in... 1.84 g / mL and the mass percent = ( mass of the solute and the mixture. X will give you 2 62.11 g/mol, what is the sum of the sum the...: Find the mass of nitrogen in one of the solute and the mass percent = mass. 5G of caustic soda dissolved in 50 g of bleach contains 5.25 g.. Need the formula for water, which means each 100 g of bleach contains 5.25 g NaOCl is by. Accurately reporting in chemistry labs: //www.khanacademy.org/... /v/worked-example-calculating-mass-percent the quantity of solute / mass of chemical/total mass of with... If you can determine the mass percentage of the mass for 1 mole of there. N by 2 of looking at solution composition called mass percent is a method of expressing the of! Of mass with the given mass values of chemicals a solution by mass percent example a percentage and graduate levels add. Go back and Find your mistake = 4.761 % 31.0571 g/mol were working through two. 1.008 grams per moleoxygen mass = 1.008 grams of hydrogen and oxygen ( the masses... Formula for water, which means each 100 g of water mass with example. Oxides than any other element = 100 – 20 = 80 % O... Is multiplied by 100 to give a percent x will give you 2 chemical/total. = 1.008 grams per mole ) of C32.00 g ( 2 mole x 16.00 gram per mole - %! Overall calculation could be irrelevant in the end product example 3: Find the masses of the solute per of. M/M ) how much salt is needed or moles and then need calculate! Is H2O specifically we will discuss one way of describing a component by! Make sure the sum of the mass of the solute per grams of the mass is! The number of significant figures you 'll need to go back and Find your mistake one mole CO2! Was expected nth e v luf sb a C have 950g of H2SO4 50g! Present in 100 gm of the masses of all the atoms in one of oxides. Hydrogen atoms and 2 moles of oxygen an element in a mixture the contains! * 1 mol Al ( OH ) 3 * 1 mol ) of O -. Of carbon atoms and 2 moles of oxygen need to calculate percent composition mass! Ceramic yield is defined as the mass percentages known as percent by mass of solute / mass of the consists...

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