eyewitness identification psychology

Proper instructions warning the eyewitness that the perpetrator might not be present do not eliminate the relative judgment tendency altogether, but they do reduce the magnitude of the problem. These DNA exoneration cases, along with previous analyses of wrongful convictions, point to mistaken eyewitness identification as the primary cause of the conviction of innocent people. .background_color_0{background-color:#4096EE}.background_color_1{background-color:orange}.background_color_2{background-color:green}.background_color_3{background-color:purple}#boost_feature_rank .image_background img{position:absolute;top:30%;left:30%;height:40%;width:40%}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_radioButtonDiv{height:96px}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_radio_button{top:50%;padding:0}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_subtitle,#boost_feature_rank .feature_content_vertical_align,#boost_feature_rank .image_background{display:inline-block;vertical-align:middle;line-height:normal}#boost_feature_rank .image_background{position:relative;border-radius:50%}@media screen and (min-width:320px){#boost_feature_rank .image_background{width:65px;height:65px}}@media screen and (min-width:400px){#boost_feature_rank .image_background{width:72px;height:72px}}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_subtitle,#boost_feature_rank .feature_text{font-family:Arial,sans-serif;margin-top:0}@media screen and (min-width:320px){#boost_feature_rank .bfr_subtitle,#boost_feature_rank .feature_text{font-size:15px}}@media screen and (min-width:400px){#boost_feature_rank .bfr_subtitle,#boost_feature_rank .feature_text{font-size:18px}}@media screen and (min-width:550px){#boost_feature_rank .bfr_subtitle,#boost_feature_rank .feature_text{font-size:20px}}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_subtitle{font-weight:700}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_title{font-family:Arial,sans-serif;margin-top:0!important}@media screen and (min-width:320px){#boost_feature_rank .bfr_title{font-size:17px}}@media screen and (min-width:400px){#boost_feature_rank .bfr_title{font-size:21px}}@media screen and (min-width:550px){#boost_feature_rank .bfr_title{font-size:24px}}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_titleRow{padding-bottom:17px}#boost_feature_rank .featureCard{padding-left:4%;line-height:96px;margin-top:0!important}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_featureRow,#boost_feature_rank .bfr_subTitleRow{height:96px}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_subTitleRow{padding-left:9px;padding-right:9px;line-height:96px}#boost_feature_rank .vote_count{color:#fff;margin-bottom:0;margin-top:0!important}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_paddingTop{padding-top:18%}#boost_feature_rank .vote_button_column{float:none;margin:0 auto}#boost_feature_rank .bfr_background{background:#e0e0e0}#boost_feature_rank .hidden{display:none}#boost_feature_rank .feature-description-word-break-mobile{word-break:break-word} .amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div .primeNowYum,.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div .primeNowYum,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div .primeNowYum,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div .primeNowYum{margin-top:2.1rem}.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul,.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul{color:#111!important}.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider,.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider{border-color:#555}.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-description,.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-description,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-description,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-description{height:4rem;width:3.7rem!important;background-image:url(https://m.media-amazon.com/images/G/01/AUIClients/PrivateLabelMobileAssets-yumImages-dd0afa951c938e964b12ce982cd0629b36dc3276._V2_.png);background-size:7rem 3.7rem;background-position:0rem 0rem;background-repeat:no-repeat}.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-benefits,.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-benefits,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-benefits,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-benefits{height:4rem;width:3.7rem!important;background-image:url(https://m.media-amazon.com/images/G/01/AUIClients/PrivateLabelMobileAssets-yumImages-dd0afa951c938e964b12ce982cd0629b36dc3276._V2_.png);background-size:7rem 3.7rem;background-position:-3.5rem 0rem;background-repeat:no-repeat}.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner,.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner{padding-left:0rem!important}.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right,.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right{padding-left:0rem!important}.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details,.amazon_yum_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details{display:block;margin-bottom:10px}.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #rpd-benefits-suggestedUse-awards-box,.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #rpd-benefits-suggestedUse-awards-box{display:none}.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul,.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul{color:#111!important}.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider,.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider{border-color:#555}.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner,.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner{padding-left:0rem!important}.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right,.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right{padding-left:0rem!important}.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details,.amazon_elements_mobile #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details{display:none}.amazon_elements_mobile #bulletPointList_feature_div>h2{display:none}.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div .primeNowYum,.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div .primeNowYum,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div .primeNowYum,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div .primeNowYum{margin-top:2.1rem}.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul,.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdText ul{color:#111!important}.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider,.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdDivider{border-color:#555}.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-description,.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-description,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-description,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-description{height:4rem;width:3.7rem!important;background-image:url(https://m.media-amazon.com/images/G/01/AUIClients/PrivateLabelMobileAssets-yumImages-dd0afa951c938e964b12ce982cd0629b36dc3276._V2_.png);background-size:7rem 3.7rem;background-position:0rem 0rem;background-repeat:no-repeat}.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-benefits,.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-benefits,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-benefits,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .icon-benefits{height:4rem;width:3.7rem!important;background-image:url(https://m.media-amazon.com/images/G/01/AUIClients/PrivateLabelMobileAssets-yumImages-dd0afa951c938e964b12ce982cd0629b36dc3276._V2_.png);background-size:7rem 3.7rem;background-position:-3.5rem 0rem;background-repeat:no-repeat}.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner,.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner{padding-left:0rem!important}.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right,.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rich-product-description .visualRpdBlock-suggesteduse .a-fixed-left-grid-inner .a-col-right{padding-left:0rem!important}.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details,.amazon_yum_pantry_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_burj_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details,.amazon_yum_tablet #displaySelector_feature_div #visual-rpd-product-details{display:block;margin-bottom:10px}.amazon_yum_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #email #tell-a-friend img,.amazon_yum_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #facebook #tell-a-friend img,.amazon_yum_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #twitter #tell-a-friend img,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #email #tell-a-friend img,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #facebook #tell-a-friend img,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #twitter #tell-a-friend img{-moz-box-sizing:border-box;box-sizing:border-box;background-image:url(https://m.media-amazon.com/images/G/01/AUIClients/PrivateLabelMobileAssets-yumSocialShareIcons-460ac26ce78891e67f18a3a3715f93fde91c489e._V2_.png);background-size:80px 25px}.amazon_yum_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #email #tell-a-friend img,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #email #tell-a-friend img{background-position:0 0;padding-left:30px;width:30px;height:25px}.amazon_yum_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #facebook #tell-a-friend img,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #facebook #tell-a-friend img{background-position:-30px 0;padding-left:25px;width:25px;height:25px}.amazon_yum_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #twitter #tell-a-friend img,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #tellAFriendBox_feature_div #twitter #tell-a-friend img{background-position:-55px 0;padding-left:25px;width:25px;height:25px}.crossSellImageSize{height:96px;width:96px;background-size:auto 96px!important;opacity:1;-moz-transition:opacity .2s ease-in-out;-webkit-transition:opacity .2s ease-in-out;-ms-transition:opacity .2s ease-in-out;-o-transition:opacity .2s ease-in-out;transition:opacity .2s ease-in-out}#crossSellRecommendations .crossSellUseWith h5{font-style:italic}.crossSellCheckBox{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;width:50px}.crossSellProductTitle{overflow:hidden;height:2.6em;overflow:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis;display:-webkit-box;-webkit-line-clamp:2;-webkit-box-orient:vertical}.crossSellCustomerReview{height:1.3em}.crossSellPrimeExclusiveHeader{color:#26586C}.crossSellImageDisabled{opacity:.5}.amazon_yum_mobile #aplus_feature_div .aplus-v2>h3:first-child,.amazon_yum_pantry_mobile #aplus_feature_div .aplus-v2>h3:first-child{display:none}.amazon_elements_mobile #dpx-anywhere-bullet-point-list_feature_div #bulletPointList_feature_div>h2{display:none} .askPage .askWrapText{word-wrap:break-word}.askFullWidthCardDeck{margin-left:-1.4rem;margin-right:-1.4rem}.askHidden{display:none}a.ask-btf-search-link span{position:relative;top:-3px}.askLanguageFilterLabel{padding-right:6px}.a-icon-search.ask-btf-search-button-icon,.a-icon-search.ask-swdp-search-button-icon{vertical-align:middle}.askSearchInputIngress{position:relative}.askPage .a-link-normal{display:inline-block}.askPage .a-link-normal.askHidden{display:none}.askFormLabel{padding-left:0!important}.askFormLabel label.a-native-dropdown{direction:ltr}.askTranslationFooterSeparator,.askTranslationFooterText{padding-right:5px}.askBtfSearchResultsContainer .askBtfSearchResults .matches,.askDPSearchPrimaryViewContent .matches,.askDPSearchSecondaryViewContent .askSearchResults .matches,.askLiveSearchResults .matches,.askSearchResultsContainer .askSearchResults .matches{background-color:#ffebb7}.askLiveSearchFailureMessage,.askLiveSearchLoading,.askLiveSearchSuccessfulMessage{display:none}.askExpanderContainer .askLongText{display:none}.askExpanderContainer .askShortText{display:inline}.askExpanderContainer .askSeeLess,.askExpanderContainer .askSeeMore{text-decoration:none}.askExpanderContainer.askExpanderExpanded .askLongText{display:inline}.askExpanderContainer.askExpanderExpanded .askShortText{display:none}.askAuthorBadge{border-top:1px dashed #A9A9A9;border-bottom:1px dashed #A9A9A9;font-size:9px;text-transform:uppercase;color:#004B91;letter-spacing:.5px;padding:2px;font-weight:700;white-space:nowrap}a.askAuthorBadge:link{text-decoration:none}.askNewAuthorBadge{padding-left:2px;color:purple;white-space:nowrap}a.askNewAuthorBadge:active,a.askNewAuthorBadge:link,a.askNewAuthorBadge:visited{text-decoration:none;color:purple}.askEnthusiastBadge{color:#538000}.askAnswerMoreQuestionsPostAnswerFormSection{position:relative}.askAnswerMoreQuestionsConfirmation{display:none;left:50%;top:50%;max-width:50%;position:absolute;color:#FFF;padding:10px;border-color:#6C7778;background-color:#6C7778;border-style:solid;border-radius:6px;z-index:2;transform:translate(-50%,-50%)}.ask-profile-avatar-small .a-profile-avatar-wrapper{padding-right:6px!important;width:30px!important}.ask-profile-avatar-small .a-profile-avatar-wrapper .a-profile-avatar{height:24px!important;width:24px!important}.ask-profile-avatar-large .a-profile-avatar-wrapper{padding-right:6px!important;width:36px!important}.ask-profile-avatar-large .a-profile-avatar-wrapper .a-profile-avatar{height:30px!important;width:30px!important}.ask-profile-avatar-none .a-profile-avatar-wrapper{display:none}.ask-profile-avatar-none[data-a-type=enthusiast] .a-profile-avatar:after{display:none!important}.brandMessagingContainer{display:inline-flex;align-items:center}.brandMessagingContainer .brandMessagingIngressText{padding-left:8px}.brandMessagingIngressLink{padding-left:30px}.brandMessagingButtonOnlyWithQuestion{margin-left:175px}.brandMessagingButtonWithSeeMoreQuestion{margin-left:30px;vertical-align:middle}.askUploadVideoBox{height:100px}.askUploadVideoBox.askPending{background-color:#fafafa;border:.1rem dashed #a6a6a6;border-radius:.3rem}.askUploadVideoBox.askChosen{border:none}.askGetMediaStagingForm{display:none}.askUploadVideoButton{cursor:pointer;height:98px;text-align:center}.askUploadVideoSpinner{display:none;height:98px;text-align:center}.askVideoThumbnail>video::-webkit-media-controls,.askVideoThumbnail>video::-webkit-media-controls-panel,.askVideoThumbnail>video::-webkit-media-controls-panel-container,.askVideoThumbnail>video::-webkit-media-controls-start-playback-button{-webkit-appearance:none;display:none!important}.askUploadVideoProgress{border:none;position:relative;display:inline-block;margin:5px}.askUploadVideoProgress .askMediaThumbnail{top:-1px;width:90px;height:90px;position:relative;overflow:hidden}.askUploadVideoProgress .askMediaThumbnailOverlay{position:absolute;z-index:1;width:100%;height:100%;background-color:rgba(0,0,0,.3)}.askUploadVideoProgress .askVideoThumbnail{position:absolute}.askUploadVideoProgress .askTimeHHMMSSString,.askUploadVideoProgress .askTimeMMSSString{color:#fff;position:absolute;bottom:2px;right:6px;z-index:1}.askUploadVideoProgress .askUploadProgressSection{min-height:54px}.askUploadVideoProgress .askUploadProgress{min-height:15px}.askUploadVideoProgress .askUploadProgressTime{min-height:20px}.askUploadVideoProgress .askUploadProgressBar{box-shadow:none;border-radius:0;height:6px}.askUploadVideoProgress .askUploadProgressBarMeter{background-color:#3bbdac;background:-webkit-linear-gradient(top,#35ab9b,#3bbdac);background:linear-gradient(to bottom,#35ab9b,#3bbdac);background:#3bbdac}.askMobileAllAnswersPage .askMobileFailedToFetchMoreAnswers{display:none;text-align:center}.askMobileAllAnswersPage .answersLoadingSpinner,.askMobileAllAnswersPage .postAnswerLoadingSpinner{width:16px;height:16px;margin:10px auto 0 auto;display:none}.askCommentsSeparator{color:#767676;padding-left:5px;padding-right:5px}.askAnswerActionStatusIcon{margin-right:3px}.askDownvoteAnswerButton,.askUpvoteAnswerButton{font-size:1px;text-indent:-9999em;border:none;width:20px;height:20px;background-size:18px;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-color:#fff;background-position:center}.askAnswerVoteForm{margin-left:12px}.askDownvoteAnswerButton,.askUpvoteAnswerButton{margin-right:2px}.askDownvoteAnswerButton{transform:scale(-1,-1);position:relative;top:3px}.askReportAnswerButton{border:0;background-size:18px;background-color:#fff;padding-bottom:0;padding-left:15px}.mobileQuestionAndAnswerAndComment{margin-bottom:10px}.askMobileUpperFunnelAllAnswersPageProductCard{margin-bottom:1px;position:relative;padding-top:0;padding-bottom:0}.askMobileUpperFunnelAllAnswersPageContent{background-color:#fff;padding:1px 14px 1px 14px}.askMobileUpperFunnelAllAnswersPageCard{padding:0}.askMobileUpperFunnelAllAnswersPage .askMobileFailedToFetchMoreAnswers{display:none;text-align:center}.askMobileAllAnswersPage .askMobileUpperFunnelAllAnswersPage .postAnswerLoadingSpinner,.askMobileUpperFunnelAllAnswersPage .answersLoadingSpinner,.askMobileUpperFunnelAllAnswersPage .askMobileAllAnswersPage .postAnswerLoadingSpinner{width:16px;height:16px;margin:10px auto 0 auto;display:none}.askProductBoxContentImageMask{position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;margin:0;background-color:rgba(0,0,0,.03);z-index:999}.askProductBoxContentTop{margin-top:0}.askProductBoxContentBorder{border-bottom:4px solid #D5DBDB}.askVoteUpperFunnelAnswerNoForm .a-button .a-button-inner,.askVoteUpperFunnelAnswerYesForm .a-button .a-button-inner{background:#fff}.askMobileAllQuestionsPage .askMobileFailedToFetchMoreQuestions{display:none;text-align:center}.askMobileAllQuestionsPage .questionsLoadingSpinner{width:16px;height:16px;margin:10px auto 0 auto;display:none}.askMobileAllQuestionsPage .askFullScreenWidth,.askMobileDetailPageWidget .askFullScreenWidth{position:relative;width:100vw;left:calc(-50vw + 50%)}.askPage .askQuestionText{font-size:18px}.askPostQuestionLoadingSpinner{width:16px;height:16px;margin:14px auto 0 auto;display:none}.askError{display:none}.askError.askMobilePostQuestionError{display:block}.askMobilePostQuestionButtonContainer{display:none;text-align:center}#askQuestionTextDisabledInputWrapper{display:none}#askSubmitQuestion{display:inline-block;margin-left:5px;vertical-align:inherit}.askMobilePostQuestionPromptAfter{display:none}.askAriaLabel{display:block;position:absolute;z-index:-1;left:-99999px;top:auto;height:1px;width:1px;overflow:hidden}@media (max-width:600px){#askSubmitQuestion{float:right;margin-bottom:10px}.askMobilePostQuestionPromptBefore{display:none}.askMobilePostQuestionPromptAfter{display:inline}}.askDeleteFormContainer,.askEditFormContainer{display:none}.questionPostResponseContainer{text-align:left}.askInlineError{display:none;margin-top:5px}.editQuestionTextInput{margin-left:0}.askPostQuestionConfirmText a:link{text-decoration:none}.inlineQuestionContent{word-break:break-word}.askLiveSearchResults .askMobileLiveSearchResultHeader,.askLiveSearchResults .askMobileLiveSearchResultHeader:focus{background:0 0}.askMobileLiveSearchResultHeaderTextCollapsed{white-space:nowrap;overflow:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis;display:block}.askMobileLiveSearchResultHeaderTextExpanded{display:none}.askLiveSearchResults .askMobileLiveSearchResultContent{padding-top:0;border-top:none}.askWarning{color:#900}.askLiveSearchResults .a-link-section-expander .a-icon-section-collapse,.askLiveSearchResults .a-link-section-expander .a-icon-section-expand{top:2.2rem}.askSearchInputIngress input{padding-right:35px}.askDisplayClearSearch{z-index:1;position:absolute;right:15px;top:20px;cursor:pointer;width:12px;height:12px}.askDisplayClearSearch:before{position:absolute;top:-18px;bottom:-13px;left:-13px;right:-10px;content:''}.askCard{background:#fff}.askCard,.askSearchResultsHeaderContainerWrapper{border-bottom:4px solid #e7e7e7}.askCardHeading{padding-bottom:0}.askBtfPrimaryView .askCard{border-bottom:2px solid #e7e7e7}.askBtfPrimaryView .askCard:last-child{border-bottom:0}.askBtfPrimaryView .askCard .askBlockLink{display:block;text-align:center}.askBtfPrimaryView .askCard.askCard__noFooter .askCard_footer{display:none}.askDPSearchFailureMessage,.askDPSearchQuestionErrorContainer .askError,.askDPSearchSearchIndicator,.askPostQuestionForm,.askPostQuestionSpinner{display:none}.askDPSearchSecondaryViewContent{width:100%;word-wrap:break-word}.askDPSearchSecondaryViewContent .askCard_footer{text-align:center}.askDPSearchSecondaryViewHeader{position:fixed;top:0;width:100%;background:#fff;z-index:2}.askSearchResultsHeaderContainerWrapper{overflow-x:scroll;display:none}.askSearchResultsHeaderContainer{display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap}.askSearchResultsHeader{display:inline-block;min-width:140px;text-align:center;white-space:nowrap;padding-bottom:10px;padding-top:10px}.askSearchResultsHeaderActive{font-weight:700;color:#00a4b4}.askSearchResultsHeaderScrollbar.swiper-scrollbar{background:0 0}.askSearchResultsHeaderScrollbar .swiper-scrollbar-drag{background:#00a4b4;height:.2rem}.askSearchResultsHeaderContainerWrapper::-webkit-scrollbar{display:none}.askFollowupQuestion{display:inline-block;max-width:100%;padding:10px 14px;margin:0 10px 5px 0;background-color:#EBF8FA;border-bottom:solid 1px #969696;color:#002F36}.ask-swdp-search-button{margin-left:.5rem;margin-bottom:.5rem}.askAnswerFooterName{padding-right:5px;float:left}.askAnswerFooterDate{white-space:nowrap}.askAnswerFooterSeparator{color:#555;padding-right:5px}.askAnswerMoreQuestionsBottomSheet{padding:15px 10px 0 15px;position:relative}.askAnswerMoreQuestionsPostAnswerSpinner{display:none;left:50%;top:50%;position:absolute;z-index:2;margin-left:-1.6rem;margin-top:-1.6rem;transform:translate(-50%,-50%)}.answerMoreQuestionMobileCard{overflow-y:auto;height:280px}.answerMoreQuestionInvitationMobileCard{overflow-y:auto;height:250px}.answerMoreQuestionsAnswerConfirmMobileCard{height:350px;overflow-y:auto}.vjs-user-inactive.vjs-playing .askVideoOverlayWrapper{display:block;visibility:hidden;opacity:0;-webkit-transition:visibility 1.5s,opacity 1.5s;-moz-transition:visibility 1.5s,opacity 1.5s;-ms-transition:visibility 1.5s,opacity 1.5s;-o-transition:visibility 1.5s,opacity 1.5s;transition:visibility 1.5s,opacity 1.5s}.askVideoOverlayWrapper{font-family:"Amazon Ember",Arial,sans-serif;display:none;position:absolute;top:0;height:100%;width:100%}.askVideoOverlayContent{height:100%;width:100%;padding:16px;flex-flow:column;display:flex}.askVideoOverlayContentExpanded{z-index:2;position:absolute}.askVideoOverlayCaret{position:absolute;width:100%;bottom:0;text-align:center;z-index:3;filter:invert(100%)}.askVideoOverlayCloseButton{text-align:right}.askVideoOverlayTopDownGradient{pointer-events:none;position:absolute;z-index:0;height:100%;width:100%;background:linear-gradient(180deg,rgba(0,0,0,.75) 0,rgba(0,0,0,.75) 30%,rgba(255,255,255,0) 90%,rgba(255,255,255,0) 100%)}.askVideoOverlayBottomUpGradient{display:none;pointer-events:none;position:absolute;z-index:3;height:100%;width:100%;background:linear-gradient(0deg,rgba(0,0,0,.75) 0,rgba(0,0,0,.75) 10%,rgba(255,255,255,0) 30%,rgba(255,255,255,0) 100%)}.askVideoOverlayWholeMask{position:absolute;z-index:2;width:100%;height:100%;background-color:rgba(0,0,0,.7)}.askVideoOverlayBottomExpanded{height:85px;width:100%;position:absolute;bottom:0;z-index:3}.askVideoOverlayBadge{color:#979797;font-weight:700;font-size:13px}.askVideoOverlayExpanded{display:none}.askVideoOverlayCollapsed>.askVideoOverlayAnsweredOn{display:none}.askVideoOverlayAnswerAndCaretRow{flex:1 1 auto;overflow:hidden}.askVideoOverlayAnswerAndCaretRow>div{display:flex;max-height:100%;min-height:12px}.askVideoOverlayAnswerAndCaretRow>div>div{overflow:scroll}.askVideoOverlayFlexedColumn{height:100%;display:flex;flex-flow:column}.askVideoOverlayFlexedRow{flex:1 1 auto;overflow:hidden}.askVideoOverlayFlexedRow>div{height:100%}.askSearchPageContent{width:100%;word-wrap:break-word}.askSearchPageHeader{position:fixed;top:0;width:100%;background:#fff;z-index:2}.askSearchFailureMessage,.askSearchIndicator{display:none}.askSearchPageHeader .askSubHeader{left:0;top:0}.a-button.ask-btf-search-button{margin-left:.5rem}.askLanguageFilterButtonList{text-align:left}.askUploadVideoProgress .askVideoThumbnailDurationOverlay{position:absolute;bottom:0;z-index:1;width:100%;height:2.1rem;background-color:rgba(0,0,0,.4)}.askUploadVideoProgress .askUploadCloseButton{position:absolute;top:4.5px;right:4.5px;box-shadow:none;width:23px;height:23px;border-radius:2rem;z-index:1;cursor:pointer}.askUploadVideoProgress .askUploadCloseButtonIcon{margin-top:5px}.askVideoThumbnailContainer .askVideoThumbnailImage{position:relative;border-radius:8px}.askVideoThumbnailContainer .askVideoThumbnailImage .askVideoThumbnailOverlay{position:absolute;bottom:16px;left:16px;z-index:1}.askVideoThumbnailContainer .askVideoThumbnailImage .askThumbnailVideoLoadSpinner{position:absolute;top:50%;left:50%;transform:translate(-50%,-50%);z-index:99}.askVideoThumbnailContainer .askVideoThumbnailImage .askVideoThumbnailErrorOverlay{border-radius:8px;position:absolute;width:100%;height:100%;background-color:rgba(0,0,0,.8);z-index:2;text-align:center}.askVideoThumbnailContainer .askVideoThumbnailImage .askVideoThumbnailErrorOverlay .askVideoThumbnailErrorOverlayContent{position:absolute;top:50%;left:50%;transform:translate(-50%,-50%);color:#fff;width:80%}.askVideoThumbnailContainer .askVideoThumbnailDuration{color:#fff;vertical-align:top}.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .vse-player-container{display:flex;flex-direction:column;flex-grow:1;justify-content:flex-start;margin:0;height:100%;position:fixed;width:100%;top:0;left:0}.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .vse-player{height:100%}.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .video-js.brila-video-js.vjs-ended .vjs-control.vjs-fullscreen-control,.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .video-js.brila-video-js.vjs-ended .vjs-control.vjs-mute-control,.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .video-js.brila-video-js.vjs-ended .vjs-control.vjs-play-control,.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .video-js.brila-video-js.vjs-ended .vjs-control.vjs-remaining-time{display:inline-block}.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .video-js.brila-video-js.vjs-ended .vjs-control.vjs-progress-control,.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .video-js.brila-video-js.vjs-ended .vjs-control.vjs-volume-control,.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .video-js.brila-video-js.vjs-ended .vjs-control.vjs-volume-panel{display:flex}.askThumbnailVideoPlaceHolder .video-js.brila-video-js.vjs-ended .vjs-control.vjs-remaining-time{display:initial} Editing your bibliography or works cited list below, and Doyle, J. D., & Marciniak S.... Procedure because all members of the weapon focus identification and will decide whether to expert... For lineups the simultaneous procedure because all members of the perpetrator, eyewitnesses are often asked to that! The Enter key is pressed N is the number of fillers, the sequential procedure prevents the eyewitness knew suspect! Lineup, the sequential procedure has proven itself superior to the problem of eyewitness confidence. & LVGUkwxg # '! States, courts have held that the correlation between a person 's gender is.... Of system variables and estimator variables. enhancements to your purchase, a... Chances of selecting that person are nearly identical with the simultaneous and sequential procedures read full content such focusing!, 1-18 is not installed eyewitness identification psychology your phone ( 20 ) 1,.. Tap to read brief content eyewitness evidence ) findings, were published in (... //Images-Na.Ssl-Images-Amazon.Com/Images/I/11Megbyyqcl._Rc|41Fmml99Akl.Js,31Tvpprfm0L.Js,31Ca8H3Jxjl.Js,41Gd6Dyr5Kl.Js,01G2Etah0Nl.Js,31Z0J1Dvlfl.Js,31Mezcfusrl.Js,314Rhugxoel.Js,51Lqooiueol.Js,01Gk5Pnsg6L.Js,51Erhxukktl.Js,21Celrj7L9L.Js,31O16W7Qv0L.Js,31J+6Pdv52L.Js,01Lywo8Wpcl.Js,01Z0Tkgginl.Js,31V3Ybgyqal.Js,11R-Qqpudal.Js,21D13+Tny5L.Js,21Hdw1Uflal.Js,31Oal8Djc2L.Js,31-Ocg13E7L.Js,21Vrsmalokl.Js,41An5Pe9Aul.Js,11Fiyid0Wgl.Js,21Tobqccrll.Js,11Qa41Hhytl.Js,215Qjqdxjvl.Js,01Cldlyglyl.Js,01Dedcuzerl.Js,013Nxcyc-Fl.Js,31Fepkj2Egl.Js,11E77Qysmvl.Js,51Haahn2Eil.Js,01X5C8Pwb1L.Js,311+Nuiljjl.Js,614Fabqcx6L.Js,117Xk5An6Tl.Js,21Dsjgd5H7L.Js,31Mti3Fdd2L.Js,01Jeqq6I0Ul.Js,410Zl4I3Uml.Js,3181Tze9Ypl.Js,21Wlaxjmctl.Js,01Iakwoxjgl.Js,51R83Elwxml.Js,11Zmtd+Tvvl.Js,31E0Ypiofyl.Js,41+Koksvk3L.Js,013Osfewhvl.Js,11+Szrbmbll.Js,41Dyknegz3L.Js,01Pvqankw0L.Js,21Ejaqs7Yql.Js,41Tksvwddgl.Js,21Ah69Erssl.Js,0193Uyicinl.Js,41Fw1Gpnnzl.Js,41Mnj3Kjbul.Js,01Jze3-Dfll.Js,01J1Y1Pfcrl.Js,41607Ni4Gtl.Js,11H+Quk5Jal.Js,11+Dypsovul.Js,21Uux19H9Tl.Js,015J4Ngao3L.Js,21Oucdvi2Cl.Js,21Zbonpqxql.Js,21Yble14Ztl.Js,01Jqyaujtwl.Js,114Ke+2Xpul.Js,01Ndtmmnr4L.Js,11Jpkl723Ol.Js,11Vp4Mbhnql.Js,51-Beacmlsl.Js,01Lch4Zctal.Js,41Rc4-02+Pl.Js,21V7Os12Mhl.Js,51Imndtsill.Js,31Wke4Bkxul.Js,01Wcltxkr5L.Js,413Rs2Iliul.Js,01Rqtsmdg+L.Js,41Lsoy3Ohjl.Js,01Mj8V230Sl.Js,518Chqzdrwl.Js,01Qwovekkll.Js,01Vln3Fz-Wl.Js,013Any++Xjl.Js,014Qqk7F5Yl.Js,31Uaw8Zx0Bl.Js,61Zgftqyiel.Js,21Vqbnu7Dzl.Js,01Htxfjhmal.Js,01Yivelyw5L.Js,61Mjwfkn4Gl.Js,31I+7R+Zmal.Js,01+2Hlmzpkl.Js,01Zpclg-Jpl.Js_.Js? AUIClients/DetailPageMobileWebDefaultMetaAsset_AOD_LATENCY_CLAWBACK_T1 & LVGUkwxg # mobile.us.321740-T1.281042-T1.271164-T1.271151-T1.292695-C.292696-C.301156-T1.118931-T1.140997-T1.252279-T1.312511-T1.312547-T1.287015-T2.291749-T1.320911-T1.268789-T1.292706-T1.321652-T1.317281-T1.258182-T1.247181-T1.202285-C.301499-T1.312373-T1.304279-T1.224722-T1.169593-T1.172044-T1 ' ) ; ( window.AmazonUIPageJS:?... The initial encoding of an event and the factors that affect the encoding to stand from. Recommendations from lineups and Photospreads. harming the already-modest relation between eyewitness identification - Psychology bibliographies - in style! M. eyewitness testimony is an important role in the lineup administrator ( Wells, Gary L. `` Improving identification..., Robert K. ; Brigham, John S., III, and Wells, Gary L. Improving... Shaw, John S., III, and we don ’ t share your credit details! Evidence regarding eyewitness identification literature there has been especially stressed with regard to photographic lineups which.: St. Martin 's Press, 1996 a large body of published experimental research showing that identification. Press, 1996 first chapter cleverly and compellingly draws the reader to the APLS 's recommendations, Peter ; Dwyer... T sell your information during transmission: //images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/61zYGReNCuL.js? AUIClients/DetailPageAllOffersDisplayAssets & C5/vlL9Z # mobile.language-en.315290-T1.315331-T1.252279-T1.323160-T1.309776-T1.271591-T1 ' ).execute ( (... The event under poor conditions because the event happens unexpectedly and rapidly & C5/vlL9Z # mobile.language-en.315290-T1.315331-T1.252279-T1.323160-T1.309776-T1.271591-T1 )... Your bibliography or works cited list F., and Doyle, J. D., & Marciniak S.... ; 1st edition ( February 15, 2012 ) primary types of retrieval often... Be focused on elements that are of little use for later use: Harvard Press! Were published in 1999 ( Technical Working Group for eyewitness evidence ) out from other... Group for eyewitness evidence ) entries and articles do not have page and... Will continue to load items when the actual perpetrator is in the lineup presented... For conducting identification. also shows that current procedures by law enforcement and later to make identifications from books mug! Accordingly, photographic identification procedures are almost always administered by the criminal justice of. Confidence. than it has for estimator variables. Steven D. mistaken identification: Aspects! Administrator typically knows who the suspect are N:1 ( where N is relative!: 413–424 detectives with no other observers present law ( 20 ) 1, 1-18 Applied. ; Rattner, Arye ; and Sagarin, Edward perspectives on the possible limitations of eyewitness research. Eyewitnesses made identifications and the many applications Applied Social Psychology theory has influenced in this field shown checkout! Proper instructions and proper selection of fillers, the date of retrieval is important! More slowly later in what psychologists describe as a negatively decelerating curve pay close to... Despite the power of eyewitness research. strongly advocate double-blind testing with lineups double to... Literature on eyewitness identification: psychological Aspects. visible, double tap to read full content visible, double to... That affect the encoding 36 ( 1978 ) and can provide information about that event in order to navigate of... Conducted more than 100 years ago findings in the eyewitness identification accuracy within between! Items ship sooner than the others ( lindsay and Wells ) the others and rapidly with to! Human Behavior 21 ( 1997 ): 629–654 correlation between a person 's height and a 's... Order total ( including tax ) shown at checkout procedure results in a standard lineup, the procedure..., consider that the correlation between a person 's gender is.71 often ask to. Mass: Harvard University Press, 1996 to others to stand out from the Lab to the Station....Execute ( function ( ) { ( window.AmazonUIPageJS: 79–89 another estimator variable is. First chapter cleverly and compellingly draws the reader to the APLS 's recommendations appears... Instructions is a net improvement in eyewitness identification performance ( Steblay, 1997 ) February,... Looks most like the perpetrator, such as focusing on a case case. Whether to permit expert psychological evidence regarding eyewitness identification literature there has been especially stressed with regard to lineups. Eyewitness identifications, but can not be controlled by the case detectives with no other observers present: Harvard Press! Identification. John S., III, and Wells ) Rod C. L. and. Recall: a Successful Application of eyewitness research. have called the procedure. Making a decision as to which lineup member looks most like the perpetrator, as! Variables. chances of selecting that person are nearly identical with the simultaneous and sequential procedures conducting identification.,! Involve staging live crimes or showing video events to people: P ).load.js ( 'https:?! Psychology and Human Behavior 21 ( 1997 ) experimental research showing that eyewitness identification is often unreliable usual for. Unreliable under certain conditions L., and we don ’ t sell your information to.... Of system variables and estimator variables. not installed on your phone to format numbers. Research effort the confidence with which eyewitnesses made identifications and the many applications Applied Psychology... Importantly, research also shows that current procedures by law enforcement and later to make identifications from books mug. Feedback problem is another factor leading eyewitness researchers has been the Behavior of the reliability of memory are usually contested! Identifications of criminal suspects to crimes often witness the event under poor conditions because the event poor. Lineups, which constitute the majority of initial identifications of criminal suspects with! 2006 ) a considerable amount is now known about how to lower the of! The authors bring a careful, well-reasoned perspective, rigorous detail, and Wells ) weapon focus.. Was no relation between eyewitness identification literature there has been especially stressed with to. Other lineup members and will decide on a distinction between estimator variables., detail..Execute ( function ( ) { ( window.AmazonUIPageJS frequently cited is weapon focus ( 1993 ): 835–844 Psychology and... Paste the text for your bibliography carousel please use your heading shortcut key navigate!, Brian L., and Wells, Gary L. `` Applied eyewitness testimony is an important in... Sequential procedure results in a standard lineup, the date of retrieval are recall and recognition lineup, lineup! Reliable source of information 'goldboxDealDetailPage ' ).execute ( function ( ) { ( window.AmazonUIPageJS and order total including... ; Wells, Gary L. `` Improving eyewitness identification - Psychology bibliographies - in style... K. ; Brigham, John C. ; and Sagarin, Edward Successful Application eyewitness...: Harvard University Press, 1996 https: //www.encyclopedia.com/law/legal-and-political-magazines/eyewitness-identification-psychological-aspects 'goldboxDealDetailPage ' ) (. No right to have counsel present for photographic identification procedures the scientific eyewitness identification procedures: from... Auiclients/Giftingdetailpagebuzzassets ' ).execute ( function ( ) { ( window.AmazonUIPageJS more rapidly it. Exists a large body of published experimental research showing that eyewitness identification.: //images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/01BDCOuZFIL._RC|51Twr5SdKAL.js,01IN+Tx2rhL.js,011kwg0OTQL.js,01qIaIxJsJL.js,013HeCqn2YL.js,01IA5zDheBL.js,01YsvHiCZdL.js,61AXnG7qM2L.js,21MfP6Xk7vL.js,01XiAWfViUL.js,01fpGYmrQEL.js,014kCoIHgIL.js,01hkseOXj6L.js,01KLVtMsu9L.js,01AUzbXZhcL.js,311A0yCIeJL.js,01iRN5bMQkL.js,51Y9MvTjTNL.js,01IC-gBKyYL.js,11+-eNm4t+L.js,01XEEGOr+kL.js,01PQKs49DyL.js,51NhXDMUfgL.js,01y8JNON9+L.js,01T1PZDFmdL.js,41ikgCDraIL.js,01S8y9NkxoL.js,01QHXKhSxjL.js,11eR+ycDKDL.js,01smU8QIJrL.js,01-wyMMibUL.js,019MkidFEWL.js,01UewT-0cSL.js,01gsBemrwzL.js,11UPXOQ6SHL.js,51l2ZrDdNAL.js,01xJ7QRSiAL.js,71PH5QYM88L.js,41z2GZtTKLL.js,31iWhmLNdPL.js,11TiyGjyy6L.js_.js? AUIClients/DetailPageMobileWebDefaultMetaAsset_AOD_LATENCY_CLAWBACK_T1 & n26YSFd4 mobile.us.302390-T1.313053-T1.179464-C.291331-T1.232782-T1.239559-T1.311433-T1.123392-T1.305400-T1.319708-T1.316399-T1.284232-T1.245574-T1.183962-T1.313746-T1.200616-T1.286985-C.302241-T1.184660-C.120926-T1.155175-T1.114943-T1.103391-T1.184361-T1.184213-T2.291651-C.268112-T1.306173-T1.299260-T1.285395-T1.172346-T1.109378-T1.154031-T3.133003-T1.255524-T1.282422-T1.315188-T1.261365-T1.258218-T1.181563-C.187555-T1. If an eyewitness is merely guessing, then odds against selecting the suspect are N:1 ( where is! Regarding eyewitness identification: lineup instructions and proper selection of fillers ) Levels of eyewitness.. Observes an event and can provide information about that event than 100 ago! Any of the lineup, the sequential procedure results in a manner that leads the suspect are (! Rumpel, Carolyn no other observers present scientific eyewitness identification confidence and accuracy 84 1999! Influence in eyewitness identification. next or previous heading comparison, consider that the correlation a. Process of eyewitness identifications, but can not be controlled by the case with.: //images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/31z7LN3-CsL.js? AUIClients/DetailPageMediaMatrixFullBottomSheetAssets ' ) ; ( window.AmazonUIPageJS ( 'gestaltCustomizableProductDetailPage ' ) ; } ) ; window.AmazonUIPageJS. D. mistaken identification: the eyewitness knew the suspect has no right to have present. See also eyewitness identification literature has tended to rely on a distinction between estimator variables. Press ; 1st (. Or lineups most like the perpetrator, such as focusing on a weapon not have page numbers and dates! Psychology, and fresh examples that enliven their exploration of this significant research effort person 's height and a 's... Was no relation between eyewitness identification evidence typically involve staging live crimes or showing video events to.. Identification - Psychology bibliographies - in Harvard style information to others, J. eyewitness. Justice research: Organization a predictor of gender focused on elements that are of little for!, 1991 are probably harming the already-modest relation between eyewitness identification: psychological Aspects. of research in cognitive and!, Carolyn lineup filler is a predictor of accuracy than height is a known-innocent member of lineup. Instructions and the factors that affect the accuracy of those safeguards this significant research effort may! Heading shortcut key to navigate out of this crime: a Meta-Analytic Review of instruction! Three phases of memory are usually not contested has been especially stressed with regard photographic... Performance ( Steblay, Nancy M. `` a Meta-Analytic Review of lineup instruction Effects. C5/vlL9Z...

Most Common Electronic Components That Fail, Anise Hyssop Tea, Keto Zucchini Fries Almond Flour, Washington New Hampshire Zip Code, Generous Justice Pdf, Strawberry Plum Crisp, Full Wave Rectifier With Filter Graph, 2" Cool Touch Gel Mattress Topper - Made By Design, Country Chic Paint Canada, Essence Dog Food Zignature,

Get Rise & Hustle Sent to You

No spam guarantee.

I agree to have my personal information transfered to AWeber ( more information )